Cave towns of Crimea - are the hills (or let's say mountain plateaus) surrounded by natural rocks... actually fortresses with a natural defense. Such fortresses were built and fortified in VI - IX th. centuries and were destroyed as a result of Tatar-Mongolian invasion to Crimea (first time conquerors appeared in Crimea in 1223). Mangup - principality of Feodoro, capital of cave towns was destroyed in 1475, when Turks invaded the peninsula.
Inhabitants were making artificial caves (this is why it was called cave towns or cave cities) mostly to use it as kind of utility rooms (keep animals, store food etc.)
Below are the photos of four main cave cities of Crimea: Chufut-Kale, Tepe-Kermen, Mangup-Kale and Eski-Kermen.
Crimea with a private guide Sergey Sorokin: one-day and many-day tours sightseeing & hiking
Pictures © Copyright Sergey Sorokin